As for aldehydes , the hydrogen atoms on the carbon adjacent ("α to") the carboxyl group in esters are sufficiently acidic to undergo deprotonation, which in turn leads to a variety of useful reactions. Deprotonation requires relatively strong bases, such as alkoxides . Deprotonation gives a nucleophilic enolate , which can further react, ., the Claisen condensation and its intramolecular equivalent, the Dieckmann condensation . This conversion is exploited in the malonic ester synthesis , wherein the diester of malonic acid reacts with an electrophile (., alkyl halide ), and is subsequently decarboxylated. Another variation is the Fráter–Seebach alkylation .
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On August 31, 2016 a three-judge panel of the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals rejected a challenge to this policy from a medical marijuana patient in Wilson v. Lynch. The opinion states: "Wilson could have amassed legal firearms before acquiring a registry card, and [federal statutes] and the Open Letter would not impede her right to keep her firearms or to use them to protect herself and her home. In addition, Wilson could acquire firearms and exercise her right to self-defense at any time by surrendering her registry card, thereby demonstrating to a firearms dealer that there is no reasonable cause to believe she is an unlawful drug user.”